Author(s): M. Giorgi, B. Innocenti, L. Labey, A. Audenino & C. Bignardi
The identification of an accurate, reliable and patient specific coordinate system
for a bone is fundamental to analyzing the kinematics of a human joint.
accuracy in the localization of anatomical landmarks of joint surfaces is
extremely important because even a small variation in their positions could
induce a high variation in the definition of anatomical axes and further on the
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a semiautomatic,
accurate, and reproducible routine able to identify the position of
anatomical landmarks on joint surfaces.
This routine, starting from a CT of a
femoral bone, used as input, is able to identify semi-automatically the femoral
head and the medial and lateral distal femoral condyles.
Moreover, it allows the
identification of the following anatomical landmarks: the Femoral Hip Center
(FHC), the Femoral Medial Epicondyle (FME) and the Femoral Lateral
From these points a standard coordinate system of the femur
is univocally determined according to previous literature.
Compared to other
commercial processes, extensively used in this field, one peculiarity of this
routine is that it is not necessary to generate a 3D model of the joint in order to
define the anatomical landmarks.
Usually, to generate a 3D lower limb model,
with the commercial process, 4 to 5 hours are needed, with this approach we can
significantly reduce this time.
To validate the routine we analyzed ten different
CTs of lower limbs.
Two different tests were performed.
The first test was
performed to verify and check the output geometry of the model; the second test
was aimed at estimating the repeatability and reproducibility of the procedure.
For such a task five different operators identified for each model the three
anatomical landmarks, three times each.
The Intra-Class Correlation coefficient
Size: 3,592 kb
Paper DOI: 10.2495/EHR110361
the Full Article
You can purchase the full text version of this article in Adobe PDF format for the above price. Please click the 'Buy Paper' icon below to purchase this paper.
this page to a colleague.