Author(s): M. Gehring, D. Vogel, L. Tennhardt, D. Weltin & B. Bilitewski
Hormonal disturbances caused by environmental pollutants have become one of
the most important issues regarding environmental and human health.
Bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol and nonylphenol are three prominent
xenobiotic endocrine active compounds (EACs) mimicking natural female sex
Since both BPA and alkylphenol polyethoxylate
surfactants are used in paper production the contamination of recycled paper
products with these compounds can be expected.
Therefore, the contamination of
wastepaper, toilet paper and cellulose samples with selected EACs has been
With one exception, all xenoestrogens studied were determined in
all toilet paper samples at very high concentrations of 2 – 430 mg/kg dry mass
The concentration of BPA in toilet paper amounted to 3.2 mg/kg dm,
45.5 mg/kg dm and 46.1 mg/kg dm.
In seven fractions of separately collected
municipal wastepaper the concentrations of BPA amounted to 0.093 to 5.1
In three types of cellulose the EAC concentrations were below or
hardly above the respective limit of quantitation.
Toilet paper, thus, was shown
being an important source of xenoestrogen emissions to wastewater.
paper again is assessed as being a major source for the contamination of recycled
paper products with BPA.
Because of the distinct contamination with
xenoestrogens, both paper waste and recycled paper products should not be
mixed with biological waste e.g.
for co-composting or co-fermentation in order
to derive organic fertilisers.
endocrine active compounds, environmental estrogens, wastepaper,
toilet paper, cellulose, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, ethoxylates, endocrine
Size: 259 kb
Paper DOI: 10.2495/WM040291
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